Journal cover Journal topic
Primate Biology An international open-access journal on primate research
Primate Biol., 3, 23-31, 2016
http://www.primate-biol.net/3/23/2016/
doi:10.5194/pb-3-23-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
08 Jul 2016
Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)
Anne Seltmann1,a, Mathias Franz2, Bonaventura Majolo3, Mohamed Qarro4, Julia Ostner1,*, and Oliver Schülke1,* 1Department of Behavioral Ecology, Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
2Department of Wildlife Diseases, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
3School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK
4Ecole Nationale Forestière d'Ingénieurs, Salé, Morocco
acurrent address: Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract. For group-living animals it is essential to maintain the cohesiveness of the group when traveling. Individuals have to make an accurate decision about where and when to move. Communication before and during the departure of the first individual may play a crucial role in synchronizing a collective movement. We hypothesized that individuals in a wild primate group use signals or cues prior to and after departure to achieve collective movements. With two observers we used all-occurrences behavior sampling of collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. The number of individuals displaying pre-departure behavior predicted the success of an initiation of a collective movement. Pauses of the first departing individual after departure enhanced following behavior and might have served as recruitment signal. However, the opposite was the case for back-glancing, which functions as a monitoring signal in other species. Because in our study frequently back-glancing individuals were also less socially integrated, back glances may better be interpreted as indicators of hesitation and insecurity. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.

Citation: Seltmann, A., Franz, M., Majolo, B., Qarro, M., Ostner, J., and Schülke, O.: Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), Primate Biol., 3, 23-31, doi:10.5194/pb-3-23-2016, 2016.
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Short summary
We investigated collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. While pauses of the first departing individual enhanced following behavior, the opposite was found for back glancing. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.
We investigated collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in...
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